关于假新闻 哲学

在中国大陆,央视、人民日报等官方媒体造假骗人,早已是家常便饭

各种自媒体的兴起,拓宽了人们获取信息的渠道,然而假新闻不但没有销声匿迹,反而越来越多

以言论自由著称的美国,假新闻问题比中国更严重,与美国大选、新冠疫苗相关的谣言漫天飞舞,养活了一大批以制造、传播谣言为生的职业人士。

谣言、谎言、阴谋论自古就有,为何假新闻会成为一个受到全球关注的新现象呢?

  • 网络带宽增加,延迟降低,一个meme从地球一侧传到另一侧只需要不到1秒,从带宽到速度都是报纸的几千倍。

  • 参与全球传播的人数(互联网用户数),过去十年内一直呈指数式增长。

  • 多媒体技术高度普及,如今普通人可以以接近零的资金投入,制作出与20年前专业电视台水准相当的节目。

但我们不能为了限制假新闻传播,就限制互联网技术的发展。那我们应该怎么办?

其实不只是互联网,任何传播媒介在发展的过程中,都伴随着虚假信息的广泛传播。以书籍为例,印量最大的是宗教文本,销量最大的则是虚构文学,两者都是通过通过巧妙虚构的故事来吸引读者。

从书的例子就可以看出,人类对虚假信息的追求是永恒的,互联网不过是把人类的这种追求发挥到极致罢了。

既然人性不靠谱,下一个选项自然是制度,例如成立一个“真理部”,负责判断一切信息的真假,类似法庭上的陪审团。

如果将《圣经》或者《哈利波特》提交给这个部门,它会怎样判定呢?

  • 如果判定为假,我们将失去言论自由、信仰自由;

  • 如果判定为真,那么假新闻制造者就可以将假新闻包装成宗教或者虚构文学进行传播。例如“戴口罩会增加感染新冠肺炎风险”这条消息,假新闻制造者可以虚构几个历史上因为戴口罩而死于疾病的故事,并声称这是宗教文本或者虚构文学。

可见,成立“真理部”并不能从根本上消灭假新闻,同时还侵犯各种自由。在假新闻面前,人性和制度都不怎么管用。

我靠的是我自己的科学素养,但我毕竟是人,总有犯错误的时候。所以我想办法聚集一群有科学素养的人,借助集体的力量探寻真相。但这又受限于我个人的社交能力,如果我本人不善于跟别人交朋友,获取真相的成本会高很多。

最近有人问父母如何避免孩子被虚假信息洗脑,我觉得大方向是培养孩子的科学素养和社交礼仪。然而对绝大多数中国父母来说,这是一项几乎无法完成的挑战。

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10月25日 442 次浏览
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NoStepOnSnek Taxation Is Theft

...

During the contest of opinion through which we have passed the animation of discussions and of exertions has sometimes worn an aspect which might impose on strangers unused to think freely and to speak and to write what they think; but this being now decided by the voice of the nation, announced according to the rules of the Constitution, all will, of course, arrange themselves under the will of the law, and unite in common efforts for the common good. All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression. Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind. Let us restore to social intercourse that harmony and affection without which liberty and even life itself are but dreary things. And let us reflect that, having banished from our land that religious intolerance under which mankind so long bled and suffered, we have yet gained little if we countenance a political intolerance as despotic, as wicked, and capable of as bitter and bloody persecutions. During the throes and convulsions of the ancient world, during the agonizing spasms of infuriated man, seeking through blood and slaughter his long-lost liberty, it was not wonderful that the agitation of the billows should reach even this distant and peaceful shore; that this should be more felt and feared by some and less by others, and should divide opinions as to measures of safety. But every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists. If there be any among us who would wish to dissolve this Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it. I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that a republican government can not be strong, that this Government is not strong enough; but would the honest patriot, in the full tide of successful experiment, abandon a government which has so far kept us free and firm on the theoretic and visionary fear that this Government, the world's best hope, may by possibility want energy to preserve itself? I trust not. I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest Government on earth. I believe it the only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly to the standard of the law, and would meet invasions of the public order as his own personal concern. Sometimes it is said that man can not be trusted with the government of himself. Can he, then, be trusted with the government of others? Or have we found angels in the forms of kings to govern him? Let history answer this question.

...

Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address (March 4, 1801)

thphd 2047站长

@NoStepOnSnek #173602

If there be ... let them stand undisturbed as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it.

这很李光耀,我就不清水三联了。

reason跟脑子一样是奢侈品,combat error最后还是得真金白银掏钱,从过去的war on muslimterrorism 到未来的 war on errorsmisinformation 都必然是昂贵的。

@thphd #173604 didn't say I support any of those.

邹韬奋 虽然韬光养晦,亦当奋起而争(拜登永不为奴:h.2047.name)

“我觉得大方向是培养孩子的科学素养和社交礼仪”

这种高水平人士送进看守所再好不过了!

Ambulance 夫人必自侮,然後人侮之;家必自毀,而後人毀之;國必自伐,而後人伐之。
任何传播媒介在发展的过程中,都伴随着虚假信息的广泛传播。以书籍为例,印量最大的是宗教文本,销量最大的则是虚构文学,两者都是通过通过巧妙虚构的故事来吸引读者。

从书的例子就可以看出,人类对虚假信息的追求是永恒的,互联网不过是把人类的这种追求发挥到极致罢了。

我非常不同意这个观点。

任何伟大的文学作品,其故事情节可能是虚构的,但是其架构和发展一定符合人性的基本逻辑和认知,故事所传递的信息和情感一定真实可信。

人们热衷于虚构的神话和寓言故事,并不等于人们相信这些故事的情节都是真的。相反绝大多数人都不会把星球大战和西游记当成真实发生的历史,而人们真正关心的是这些故事背后的寓意和情感。

假信息能够获得人的信任,恰恰是制造者洞悉人性的弱点,从而把自己包装成真理。

如何提高分辨假信息的能力:

当然,多看不同权威媒体的报道,从中对照而获得事件的全貌,才是更现实和有效的解决方法。

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