美国仇亚简史 历史

https://www.washingtonpost.com/history/2021/03/18/history-anti-asian-violence-racism/

The long, ugly history of anti-Asian racism and violence in the U.S.

By Gillian Brockell

March 18, 2021 at 7:00 p.m. GMT+8

A gunman killed eight people at three Atlanta-area spas Tuesday night; six of the victims were women of Asian descent, sparking fears among advocacy groups that the killings may have been racially motivated.

Anti-Asian hate crimes have spiked 150 percent since the pandemic began, according to a recent study.

People of Asian descent have been living in the United States for more than 160 years, and have long been the target of bigotry. Here is a look at the violence and racism that Asian immigrants and Asian Americans have faced since before the Civil War.

People v. Hall / 1854加州屠华无罪法案

Chinese immigrants began coming to the United States in significant numbers in the 1850s, largely to California and other Western states, to work in mining and railroad construction. There was high demand for these dangerous, low-wage jobs, and Chinese immigrants were willing to fill them. Almost immediately, the racist trope of “Asians coming to steal White jobs” was born. And in 1854, the California Supreme Court reinforced racism against Asian immigrants in People v. Hall, ruling that people of Asian descent could not testify against a White person in court, virtually guaranteeing that Whites could escape punishment for anti-Asian violence. In this case, it was murder: George Hall shot and killed Chinese immigrant Ling Sing, and the testimony of witnesses was rejected because they were also Asian.

Chinese massacre of 1871 / 1871洛杉矶屠华事件

On Oct. 24, 1871, following the murder of a White man caught in the crossfire between rival Chinese groups, more than 500 White and Hispanic rioters surrounded and attacked Los Angeles’ small Chinese community, centered in a red-light district known as Negro Alley. At least 17 Chinese men and boys were lynched, including a prominent local doctor. They were hanged across several downtown sites, anywhere the rioters could find a beam to string a noose. Eight of the rioters were eventually convicted of manslaughter, but their convictions were overturned. No one else was ever punished.

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 / 1882国会排华法案

Economic woes in the 1870s spawned another spike in anti-Asian racism and scapegoating. In 1882, Congress overwhelmingly passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which banned Chinese immigration for 20 years. President Chester A. Arthur vetoed it, but then signed another version with a 10-year ban. The first law placing a restriction on immigration to the United States, it was extended for more than 60 years before it was repealed in 1943.

‘Cheap slaves’: The ugly history of the Chinese Exclusion Act

An 1885 print depicts Chinese immigrant miners working for the Union Pacific Coal Company fleeing from armed White miners who blamed the Chinese miners for taking their jobs. (Library of Congress)

Rock Springs massacre, 1885 / 1885怀俄明屠华事件

In Rock Springs, Wyoming Territory, long-standing aggression against Chinese miners exploded in September 1885, when 100 to 150 vigilantes surrounded and attacked Chinese mineworkers, killing 28 people and burning 79 homes. Hundreds fled to a nearby town, then were tricked into boarding a train they were told would take them to safety in San Francisco. Instead, it took them back to Rock Springs, where they were forced back into the mine. Federal troops stayed for 13 years to impose order.

San Francisco plague outbreak / 1900洛杉矶疫情排华

In 1900, an outbreak of bubonic plague struck San Francisco. It is likely that the outbreak began with a ship from Australia, but since the first stateside victim was a Chinese immigrant, the whole community was blamed for it. Overnight, the city’s Chinatown was surrounded by police, preventing anyone but White residents from going in or out. Chinese residents were also subjected to home searches and property destruction by force. The episode was a prelude to the racism that has been aimed at Asian Americans during the coronavirus pandemic, which former President Donald Trump frequently called “the China virus," “the Wuhan virus,” and the “Kung Flu.”

The 1943 film "Japanese Relocation" tried to justify the government's decision to move people of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast to internment camps. (U.S. Office of War Information)

Japanese internment during World War II / 二战日裔集中营

By the 1940s, tens of thousands of Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans had built lives in the United States. After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor and the United States entered World War II, the U.S. government forced all of them into internment camps for the duration of the war over suspicions they might aid the enemy. Conditions in the camps were extreme, blazing hot in the summer and freezing cold in the winter. No spies were ever found. When they were freed, many returned to find their homes and businesses vandalized or confiscated. In 1988, survivors received a presidential apology and $20,000 each in reparations.

Vietnamese shrimpers and the KKK / 南越渔民 vs KKK

At the close of the Vietnam War, the United States resettled many Vietnamese fleeing the communists. In Texas, many of those immigrants took up shrimping. “We like the weather, we like the shrimping, we like a chance to start our own businesses,” Nguyen Van Nam told The Washington Post in 1984. As they worked hard and began to dominate the industry, the trope of Asians coming to take White jobs returned, and this time it was wearing a white hood. Ku Klux Klan leader Louis Beam trained his members in commando-style attacks; they patrolled the waters in their regalia and set boats owned by Vietnamese people on fire.

Lily Chin holds a photograph of her son Vincent, 27, who was beaten to death in June 1982. (Richard Sheinwald/AP)

The murder of Vincent Chin / 1982陈果仁被误认为日本人,因仇日情绪酒吧外被杀害

Vincent Chin was out on the town. On June 19, 1982, the 27-year-old Chinese American was about to marry and was celebrating with friends in Detroit. Then two White men picked a bar fight, blaming Chin for “the Japanese” taking their auto-industry jobs. Outside the bar, the men beat Chin with a baseball bat. He died several days later. His assailants took a manslaughter plea bargain, which carried a possible sentence of 15 years. Instead, the judge gave the men probation and a $3,000 fine. The lenient sentence outraged and galvanized the Asian American community, helping to unite them across ethnic lines and work for civil rights.

The L.A. riots / 1992洛杉矶骚乱 韩国商店遭殃

Tensions had been building between the Black and Korean American communities in Los Angeles for years. Then came the April 29, 1992, acquittal of the police officers caught on camera beating Rodney King. As the city erupted in riots, Korean American businesses became targets; thousands were damaged during the unrest.

9/11-inspired hatred / 911后,东南亚裔被当做穆斯林杀害

After the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, hate crimes spiked against Muslims and those perceived to be Muslim, including people of South Asian descent. Only four days after the attacks, aircraft mechanic Frank Silva Roque murdered Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh American gas station owner originally from India, whom Roque mistook for Muslim. The post-9/11 period led to greater awareness and advocacy between the South and East Asian communities.

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3月24日 724 次浏览
18个评论
thphd 2047站长

两分钱,不代表本站立场:

  • 当年大清被各种联军吊打,华人很自然被视为劣等民族,谁都可以欺负;到二战中美合作抗日,美国就不欺负华人,改收拾日本人了。
  • 陈果仁事件背景是80年代美国日本打贸易战,美国民间仇日情绪高涨。
  • 所以欢迎或者排斥一类人,往往不是因为这些人本身做了什么,而是背后政治军事较量的一种体现。疫情期间Asian hate crime +150%,和中国政府的战狼甩锅不可能没有关系,即便川府起到添油加醋的作用
  • 欺负其他人是人的本性,要防止被人欺负,单靠下跪是没用的,只能靠政治、军事上的实力提升。这就是为什么很多华人不愿意跟PRC切割,因为切了之后显得自己更短
  • stop asian hate带来的微小政治优势,会迅速淹没在中美两国互扇耳光的噪音中
习特厚
钦明方泽忘了密码 习特厚:习近平特别受到人民厚爱

结论:除了二战日裔集中营,没有一次是该族裔支持战狼政府导致的。甚至有南越难民,逃离共产党迫害之后再被KKK迫害一遍。绝大部分都是因为亚裔“抢了美国人工作”。

岿然宽衣
奭麦郎 满辗鲜衣八岿合艰萨逆疯金颐提酵甚瞻冰坡秩歼殊淆冯

@钦明方泽忘了密码 #133007 但美国一战二战的时候也有排德行为,这和德二德三的军国主义和法西斯思想输出不无关系。中共虽然并没有像昭和一样全面扩张,但是中共的战狼态度会让美国人产生PTSD,然后这股恐惧又会被流传已久的排外思想点燃

消极 (男)消极自由需要积极的个人主义来维护

这样说吧,种族主义的起源是劳工倾轧,例如爱尔兰苦力和中国苦力为了修铁路的苦差事打破头。但是要得到政府的支持,尤其是联邦政府的支持,那是需要一些外部条件的。

对于种族主义的起源,战狼和攻势外交毫无意义,因为对于种族主义的发起人来说,问题纯属抢饭碗。但是一旦联邦政府级别意识到了,被侵犯的种族有可能里通外国反对当局的时候,他们就会选择默许和鼓励种族主义活动。

现在有人说,因为中国散布病毒而且中共当局反美,所以导致了街头上仇视亚裔的行为上升。但是站在美国联邦政府的角度来说,如果仇视亚裔不能精准的打击到华裔,特别是PRC出生的华裔,那这种仇视对美国无益。因为亚裔当中,日裔,韩裔,东南亚各族,台湾裔,香港裔,都不是“敌侨”。显然,要街头上的种族主义者区分这些人是mission impossible,所以要来给仇视亚裔泼冷水,这事情,联邦政府估计都更有热情。

@thphd #133006 政治经济那些很适合当幌子是真的。那些人搞歧视的时候会说我这是在爱国/反共/保护就业,我爱国无罪!要想从这里落实歧视的指控难度就会比较大。而且也可以消音一些歧视的反对者。

当然真正的魔怔人才不介意什么幌子不幌子。白人就是最好的。每个种族的人都应该在自己的地盘上发展自己的文化,保持自己的身份(美澳新原住民:……)。不属于这片土地的人要回到自己的地方。不愿意回去的人就送进集中营里。集中营我们也要搞。像中共一样搞。中共是我们的榜样。是我最喜欢的政治体制。参见基督城的枪手。

方案D 品韭同名

everyone hate Chinese,event Chinese

@方案D #133164 我只反对People's Republic of China,其他随便。

@消极 #133165 谁在乎?还有有什么区别……

禁止发言

@thphd #133006 陈果仁事件背景是80年代美国日本打贸易战,美国民间仇日情绪高涨。

80年代初期日本发生了东芝事件,事件大概就是东芝暗地里配合,绕过北约严密的封锁,把高级数控机床卖给苏联,导致苏联潜艇螺旋桨制造技术上了一个台阶,严重威胁了美国的国家安全。

60-70年代,日本街头也是到处是乱扔的垃圾,吐痰之类的。

日本通过战后美国的扶持,国内经济迅速腾飞,用了20-30年,到了70-80年代时,国内市场已然饱和,经济好,泡沫多,首先经济就需要对外扩张,那段时间日本的资本全球买买买,包括在美国也大手笔出手,但日本整个国家的文明程度实际并没有发展到符合这个经济实力的水平,东芝事件只是其中有代表性的事件,那时日本满地乱扔垃圾也体现了当时日本的文明程度,完全不是现在日本给全世界人民的印象,东芝事件体现当时的日本精英的认知,也能代表整个日本的文明水平,那时只要有钱赚,没有任何底线,什么道义,契约精神,诚信,正义等等什都是可以抛弃的,所以80年代美日贸易战并不单是经济的冲突,就如同现在的中美贸易战。

个人认为,二战的起因其实也类似,日本明治维新后,学习西方制度,经济发达,需要对外扩张,但和文明秩序格格不入,觉得浑身不自在,在用军国主义加持一下,就给现在中国煽动民族主义一样,好在日本因为二战的原因,国体不全,在政治上军事上被阉割,80年代才没有再次演变成和美国军事对决的态势,冲突只在经济范畴,很多人说日本经济消失的20年,觉得日本在80年以签订广场协议为标志的美日贸易战中,吃了大亏,完全没有看到,日本其实很幸运,所谓的"忍辱", 恰恰让日本真正走向了现代意义的大国,现在日本全世界投资做生意,都静悄悄的,没有再和文明秩序有什么剧烈的冲突发生。

为什么当时美国民间仇日,就很容易理解了,现在的中国完全就是当时日本的翻版。

@安排得明明白白 #133185 这个例子要注意几件事情。首先,这个整个事情都是朝日新闻,一家日本媒体,率先披露的。其次,之后调查发现,除了东芝以外,几个西欧的企业也向苏联出口了机床。其中最关键的数控部分,全部都是挪威企业Kongsberg提供。该企业也对此完全知情。

这些事实说明了:

  1. 切割是没用的。在东芝-kongsberg事件里面,第一个像世界揭露的就是日本媒体。但是这毫不影响之后的反日情绪。

  2. 同样是通共,挪威人通共和日本人通共就是不一样。虽然当时看来Kongsberg死的比较惨(公司被重组,名字都被扬了,苏联解体之后才重新启用),但是美国并没有出现反挪威(以及反西德反英国反法)情绪。而且大家都只记得东芝,把Kongsberg忘光了。

@burleigh #133204 引用这个事件,是因为这个事件比较出名,有代表性,即日本和美国是盟友,还在背后捅刀子,完全是见利忘义,不按规矩的典型,就像现在一样,年代久远以后能用什么来说明现在,说小粉红抵制这个那个,只能算个体没文化脑残的选择,回头一句当时幼稚就了事,就算华为孟晚舟事件也可能不够,因为定义的是银行欺诈,而且伊朗和苏联作为美国的敌人,根本就不是一个量级的,几十年后想说明现在为什么被别人痛恨,能用什么来给别人描述呢,其实发生了很多在历史角度来说不起眼的事情,今天一个中美政府会谈,政府战狼式的叫嚣,被转播给美国普通人看,明天抵制HM,耐克,NBA,后天让这个道歉那个道歉,还和伊朗,北韩搞到一起......。

所以这个例子,有挪威公司参与其中,并没有被一视同仁对待,不是重点,第一、不是追究这个事件中谁有责任,第二,挪威公司参与,只是个体利欲熏心的个案,对挪威没有代表性,第三,这个事件的起因,是东芝和苏联主导,挪威公司只是后来操作的时候找的中介,当然中介也知情,第四,日本媒体曝光只是形式,是美军发现苏联潜艇的噪音大幅降低,声纳很难发现,进行秘密调查有结论在先,媒体才可能有料报,都不知道是谁干的,媒体还能自己调查出来的可能很低。

@安排得明明白白 #133285 挪威和美国也是盟友。挪威和美国都是北约国家。挪威,日本和美国都是巴统成员国。所以如果说日本是见利忘义的话,挪威也是见利忘义,背后捅刀……。

Kongsberg也不是“一家挪威公司”。当时的Kongsberg (Vapenfabrikks)是挪威的国营企业。直到现在重组改名之后的Kongsberg (Gruppen)也还是挪威政府有多数股份。相比之下和光/伊藤忠/东芝可能更能被称为“三家日本企业”……。

Kongsberg也不只是中介。Kongsberg是一个数控电脑和软件制造商。直到现在也还是工业控制领域的顶级企业。如果东芝的机床没有Kongsberg的控制电脑和软件,是完全无法使用的。据挪威警察的调查,Kongsberg也不是第一次向苏联提供禁止出口的数控设备,东芝之前Kongsberg的数控设备也有被装备向其他国家的企业违法向苏联出口的机床上。不少被用在了核工业上。Kongsberg和苏联方的合同是它自己签的。出口许可证也是Kongsberg自己向挪威政府申请的,包括谎报出口内容和用途的部分。

秘密调查这一部分也很难说。和光(当时苏联人找的中介)的一名职员向巴统举报了此事。这是在朝日爆出来的两年前。美国能够定位到日本和这位职员的举报也不是没有关系的。

从法律角度来看,挪威企业和日本企业并没有受到不同待遇。两家在当时的大媒体报导时基本就是一起出现的。最后的高举轻放结局对两家企业都一样。不过问题就是,为什么日本挪威同样都是通共,民间情绪反日远大于反挪威。

"从法律角度来看,挪威企业和日本企业并没有受到不同待遇。两家在当时的大媒体报导时基本就是一起出现的。最后的高举轻放结局对两家企业都一样。不过问题就是,为什么日本挪威同样都是通共,民间情绪反日远大于反挪威。"

美国人论人种,平均而言还是更像挪威人,而不是日本人,人类本来就有排外的本性。就像天朝人说找对象,你是愿意找日韩的还是非洲的呢?

星火1959 说点人话

So?

@消极 #133349 所以嘛承认美国人有排外心态就是了(但是为什么亚裔是外?)。不和日本人谈恋爱是一回事,在街上打长得像日本人的美国人就很有问题的。

@burleigh #133923 打人又不多,大部分的歧视都是隐性的。

好奇宝宝
Ponyzeka0603 我叫小马,大概是个浸会徒. 没有文化,希望大家喜欢我哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈哈.

@安排得明明白白 #133185 但是中国不会变成另一个日本, 听你这么说,我倒挺希望三战打起来了. 我死就死吧,但是这个国家的人民,值得活得像人

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